Compendium of Design

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working drawings

  • Lettering and Numbers

    Lettering and Numbers

    The clarity, style, spacing and size of lettering and numerals are vital to instrumental drawings as they ensure that each notation can be read and interpreted without mistake or uncertainty. You should take your time to draw each letter or numeral and practice your lettering skills as often as possible to become consistent in reproducing each letter or number with precision.

    Making sense of your writing
    Using your normal handwriting style, write down the notation below.

    THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER THE LAZY DOG

    Underneath your normal handwritten notation, rewrite the notation using the neatest handwriting you can write using capital letters only.
    Pass your writing onto someone else in the room. Look at the copy you receive in return, which version is easier to read and understand?
    • Write down a small sentence with more than 5 words but mix up the letters of each word leaving only the first and last letters in the correct place.
    • Write down 5 large numbers with each number containing at least 4 numbers but mix up the number so that only the first and last of each of the larger numbers is in the correct space. Remember the order of the original numbers you chose.
    • Pass your sentence and numbers to someone else in the class and get them to read back the sentence and numbers.

    What do you notice?
    Was the person able to still read the sentence but not the numbers?
    When you make notations on instrumental drawings you will need to ensure that all lettering and numerals adhere to the following standards;


     

    Letters and numerals must be drawn legibly, with a consistent style, spacing and size, particularly numerals as unlike letters, numbers rarely fall into self-identifying patterns. This causes numbers to be read individually whereas the letters within a word are automatically decoded and rearranged by your brain.

    Spacing of letters

    The figures below show the suggested styles which letters and numerals should be drawn. For clarity only capital letters should be used.

    lettering_standard
    lettering_italic


    The following character heights are suggested for lettering and numerals, 2.5, 3.5, 5, 7, 10, 14, or 20mm. All lettering and numerals used for titles and drawing numbers should be twice the size of dimensions and notes. Characters used for dimensions and notes should not be any smaller than 3.5mm in height for A0 sheets and 2.5mm for small A4 series sheets

    All notes and captions should be positioned so that they can be read in the same direction as the title block. Use larger characters to draw attention to notes or captions. Do not underline as this has now become the international standard for hyperlinks and web references.



  • Types of Drawings

    Types of Drawings

    When a product or environment has been designed, it is then prototyped or produced by a manufacturer or constructed by a team of builders or engineers. To assist in the creation of the product a set of plans are required. These plans enable the people whose job it is to create the design to do so in a way that meets the designer or client requirements. In order to do this, a drawing method that can illustrate to someone the size and shape of product's form, how many parts the product has and from what material each part or component will be made or constructed from is required.

    What drawings are needed?

    When a designer chooses to have a product manufactured they must provide the manufacturer or builder with enough information to make each individual part and assemble the parts to construct the overall product or environment. In these circumstances a complete set of 'Working Drawings' are needed. A set of working drawings consist of 'Detail Drawings' and 'Assembly Drawings'. In some occasions a 3-dimensional pictorial drawing can also be included to provide additional information if required.

    Detail Drawings

    Detail drawings are used as a primary reference for manufacturing an individual part. They must show all of the detail required to manufacture an individual component including a suitable number of fully dimensioned orthogonal views. It is convention for detailed drawings to contain only one part per drawing sheet; however, multi-detailed drawings can be used when it is more convenient to show a small number of simple individual parts on the same drawing.


    The following information is included on a detail drawing;

    • Dimensions and instructional annotations
    • Drafting standards used (AS 1100)
    • Name and Title of the Drawing
    • Drawing NumberUnit of measure (mm)
    • Tolerances where appropriate
    • Surface texture finishes
    • Special Treatments (heat, metallic coatings, paint)
    • References that reference a part to its particular sub-assembly
    • Type of Material used (Steel, High Speed Steel, Aluminium, Copper, Brass, Polystyrene, ABS)
    • Names of drafter, checker, approver, the dates on which the drafting and other procedures occurred
    • Zone reference system to help locate areas on a drawing
    • Size of the drawing sheetName of company or department
    • Drawing sheet reference, eg. 1 of 2

     

    Assembly and Sub-assembly Drawings

    An Assembly drawing shows how all the individual parts fit together to make an assembly. They are drawn using an arrangement of orthogonal views and cut sections. To show how large complex parts are assembled, large assembly drawings are generally made up of smaller sub-assembly drawings. In the case of a mountain bike for example, the bike's frame would be considered a sub-assemble, the gear cogs and chain considered a separate sub-assembly and so on. All of these sub-assemblies would then assemble to form the finished mountain bike assembly.

    There are two styles of assembly drawings used; General Assembly Drawings and Working Assembly Drawings

    General Assembly Drawings

    General assembly drawings are orthogonal drawings that are used to identify the individual components required to make up an assembly or sub-assembly. When drawing a general assembly the following points should be taken into account:

    • Only the necessary views required to clearly describe how the parts fit together and how the sub-assembly functions should be shown. These views should include a sectional view to avoid the use of hidden lines.
    • Annotations and dimensions that relate to the function of the sub-assembly are provided.
    • Individual components are identified by the use of leaders from the part and numbers enclosed within circles or balloons.
    • A Parts list sorted by the part number in the drawing identifies each part, its drawing number, and quantity. This list should also include any off the shelf parts used within the sub-assembly.
    • Assembly and sub-assembly drawings do not need to list information about the manufacture of individual parts. However, information about how a sub-assembly is to be assembled or important dimensions that could affect its assembly can be included.

    Working Assembly Drawings

    Working assembly drawings are a combination of working drawings and assembly drawings. They are typically only used where the drawing of the individual components, dimensions and the assembly of parts can be drawn on the same drawing sheet without ambiguity. Such drawings are typically only used in industries like furniture design where join details are provided in enlarged separate detailed drawings.

  • Working Drawings

    Working Drawings

     

    Working Drawings

     

    Working drawings are the complete set of technical or instrumental drawings required to manufacture a design. They have strict guidelines that stipulate the way each drawing is laid out and what details need to be included. These guidelines or conventions are set out by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) and mirrored by the Australian Standards (AS). This ensures that every designer (product, architect, graphic, engineer, civil etc) produces drawings that can be read by every manufacturer, builder, workperson, assembler or user around the world.

    A set of working drawings typically consists of 'Detail Drawings' and 'Assembly Drawings'. In some occasions a 3-dimensional pictorial drawing can also be included to provide additional information if required.

    Detail Drawings

    Detail drawings are used as a primary reference for manufacturing an individual part. They must show all of the detail required to manufacture an individual component including a suitable number of fully dimensioned orthogonal views. It is convention for detailed drawings to contain only one part per drawing sheet; however, multi-detailed drawings can be used when it is more convenient to show a small number of simple individual parts on the same drawing.

    Assembly and Sub-assembly Drawings

    An Assembly drawing shows how all the individual parts fit together to make an assembly. They are drawn using an arrangement of orthogonal views and cut sections. To show how large complex parts are assembled, large assembly drawings are generally made up of smaller sub-assembly drawings. In the case of a mountain bike for example, the bike's frame would be considered a sub-assemble, the gear cogs and chain considered a separate sub-assembly and so on. All of these sub-assemblies would then assembly to form the finished mountain bike assembly.

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