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Compendium of Design

A Body of Knowledge
Learn from those who designed before you.

Paraline Drawing Systems

This part of the compendium covers the application of paraline drawing systems and how they are used by the different design fields to communicate information. As you will find, each discipline how a unique reason why it varies in application. Nonetheless, without a convention or common way of doing things, the production of goods, or structures would become overly complicated.

Paraline Drawing Systems can be complicated to master as they require the application of mathematics for measurement, cognitive ability to mentally rotate and construct 3-Dimensional forms in your head and of course, finetuned hand-eye coordination skills to draw and control multiple drawing instruments all at one time. Naturally, modern day computer aided drawing packages make creating paraline line drawings much easier to create and reproduce.

When drawn for the production or products or environments, paraline drawing systems must adhere to strict standards. To assist students with this, the compendium provides you with information based on the Australian Standards (AS1100) for Technical Drawing and explains the paraline drawing systems of Orthogonal Projection, Isometric Drawing, Oblique Drawing, Planometric and the application of dimensioning, scale, and sectioning. Additionally, each section is clearly highlights the different standards that apply to engineering, architecture, textiles and packaging design.

Types of Paraline Drawings

Paraline drawings can be catagorised as pictorial (three-dimensional) or orthogonal (two-dimensional). There are a number of drawing systems within each method of drawing, each with their own purpose.

Pictorial Drawing

As implied by their name, pictorial drawings try to picture a part, structure or assembly in a three-dimensional form. Pictorial drawings are therefore used to clarify information that orthogonal drawing cannot easily communicate. However, being an measured drawing, they do not distort the illustrated form like a perspective drawing. There are a number of different pictorial drawing methods depending on the discipline the drawing is being used for. These can commonly include engineering, architecture and packaging. The different methods of pictorial drawing include:

  • Axonometric Drawing and Projection
  • Planometric Drawing and Projection
  • Oblique Drawing and Projection

Did You Know?
Set squares can be used in combination to achieved the desired angles to draw all forms of paraline drawings. Simply use each set square in combination with each other and a tee square to create the correct angle.

Guide Angle to the Drawing Plan Angle to the Vertical Drawing System Illustration
Tee Square Only ° or 180° 90° Oblique
Tee Square, and a 90°, and a 45°, and a 30° set square 15° 105° Dimetric
Tee Square & 30° edge of isometric set square 30° 120° Isometric
Tee Square & 45° edge of equalateral set square 45° 135° Dimetric, Trimetric, & Oblique
Tee Square & 60° edge of isometric set square 60° 30° Planometric
Tee Square & 90° edge of isometric or equalaterial set square 90° ° (180°) All
Tee Square & flipped 30° edge of isometric or equalaterial set square -30° (150°) -120° Isometric
Tee Square & flipped 45° edge of equalateral set square -45° (135°) -135° Trimetric, Oblique
Tee Square & flipped 60° edge of equalateral set square -60° (150°) -150° Planometric

Planometric Drawing

planometric drawing and projection is used for architecture. The drawing system allows architects to illustrate what the designed environment will look like. This is particularlly valued when looking after clients with little experience in reading two-dimensional orthogonal plans.

Oblique Drawing

Sometimes the part or product being depicted features irregular surfaces or features. These views can be often difficult to draw or decipher in axonometric drawings. in such causes it is useful to show them using oblique projection.

Oblique projection rotates the irregular surface or feature so it is perpendicular to the viewer. The part or assembly is then projected back at any angle as best fit for the drawing. However, it is common to make use the angles achieveable using set squares, 15° , 30°, 45°, or 60°. Of these, 45° is the convention.

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